How to Care for Domestic Rabbits by Robert Tronge
Rabbits may be easy to love, but they’re not quite as easy to care for.
These lovable, social animals are wonderful companions for people who take
the time to learn about their needs. Though providing care for these
adorable creatures isn’t difficult, rabbits have a long lifespan—more than
10 years—and many specific care requirements. Anyone considering adding a
rabbit to their family should carefully research books and web sites on
rabbit care before making a decision. Here are some quick tips by Robert
Tronge to get you
Indoors or Outdoors? -
Every rabbit owner should know that the safest place for a rabbit to live is
indoors. Rabbits should never be kept outdoors! Domestic rabbits are
different from their wild relatives—they do not tolerate extreme
temperatures well, especially in the hot summer months. Even in a safe
enclosure, rabbits are at risk from predators. Merely the sight or sound of
a nearby wild animal can cause rabbits so much stress that they can suffer a
heart attack and literally die of fear.
Caged or Free to Roam? -
Whether you decide to let your rabbit roam free in your entire home or just
a limited area, it is important that you make everything rabbit-safe. One
little bunny can easily find a whole lot of trouble in an average home.
Because rabbits like to chew, make sure that all electrical cords are out of
reach and outlets are covered. Chewing through a plugged-in cord can result
in severe injury or even death. Their chewing can also result in poisoning
if the wrong objects are left in the open or in unlocked low cabinets. Aside
from obvious toxins like insecticides, rodenticides, and cleaning supplies,
be aware that common plants such as aloe, azalea, Calla lily, Lily of the
Valley, philodendron, and assorted plant bulbs can be poisonous to rabbits.
If kept in a cage, rabbits need a lot of room to easily move around. A
rabbit’s cage should be a minimum of five times the size of the rabbit. Your
rabbit should be able to completely stretch out in his cage and stand up on
his hind legs without bumping his head on the top of the cage. Additionally,
cages with wire flooring are hard on rabbits’ feet, which do not have
protective pads like those of dogs and cats. If you place your rabbit in a
wire cage, be sure to layer the floor with cardboard or other material.
Place a cardboard box or “rabbit condo” in the cage so the bunny has a
comfortable place to hide, and respect your animal’s need for quiet time
(rabbits usually sleep during the day and night, becoming playful at dawn
When rabbits are kept in a cage, Robert Tronge says they need to be let out for several hours
each day for exercise. Aside from running and jumping, rabbits also enjoy
exploring their surroundings. This is an ideal time to play and interact
with your rabbit. Make sure that he has a safe area to play and explore.
Bunny Bathrooms -
Just like cats, rabbits can easily learn to use a litter box. Place a litter
box in the cage to encourage this behavior. If your rabbit roams freely
through multiple rooms of your home, it’s a good idea to have litter boxes
in several places. Many rabbits enjoy spending time relaxing in their litter
box, so make sure that it is of ample size. For bedding (litter), stay away
from cedar or other wood shavings, which may cause liver damage or trigger
allergic reactions in rabbits. Also avoid clumping or dusty kitty litters,
which can cause serious health problems if eaten. Instead, stick with
organic litters made of paper, wood pulp, or citrus. Robert G Tronge says newspaper can work too,
but may not be as absorbent. Be sure to put fresh hay in the litter box
daily, as many rabbits like to have a snack while sitting in their litter
A Balanced Diet -
Rabbits have complex digestive systems, so it’s very important that they
receive a proper diet. Many health problems in rabbits are caused by foods
that are incompatible with their digestive physiology. According to Robert
George Tronge a basic rabbit diet
should consist of the following foods:
Rabbits need hay—specifically, Timothy grass hay. Rabbits should have access
to a constant supply of this hay, which aids their digestive systems and
provides the necessary fiber to help prevent health problems such as hair
balls, diarrhea, and obesity. Alfalfa hay, on the other hand, should only be
given to adult rabbits in very limited quantities, if at all, because it’s
high in protein, calcium, and calories.
In addition to hay, the basic diet of an adult rabbit should consist of
leafy, dark green vegetables such as romaine and leaf lettuces, parsley,
cilantro, collard greens, arugula, escarole, endive, dandelion greens, and
others. Variety is important, so feed your rabbit three different vegetables
at a time. When introducing new veggies to a rabbit’s diet, try just one at
a time and keep quantities limited.
Fruits and Treats -
While hay and vegetables are the basis of a healthy diet, rabbits also enjoy
treats. Cartoons and other fictional portrayals of rabbits would lead us to
believe that carrots are the basis of a healthy rabbit diet. Many rabbits
enjoy carrots, but they are a starchy vegetable and should only be given
sparingly as a treat. Other treats your rabbit might enjoy are apples
(without stems or seeds), blueberries, papaya, strawberries, pears, peaches,
plums, or melon. Extra-sugary fruits like bananas, grapes, and raisins are
good too, but should be given on a more limited basis.
Foods to Avoid -
With such sensitive digestive systems, there are a number of foods that
rabbits should avoid eating. These include iceberg lettuce, tomatoes,
cabbage, corn, beans, peas, potatoes, beets, onions, rhubarb, bamboo, seeds,
grains, and many others. Also, don’t feed your rabbit chocolate, candy,
anything moldy, or most human foods. If you are not sure about a certain
food, ask your rabbit’s veterinarian.
If you choose to make pellets a part of your rabbit’s diet, it is best to
use them as a supplement to the dark green, leafy vegetables, not as a
substitute. These pellets should only be given in small quantities (1/8 -1/4
cup per five pounds of body weight per day, spread out over two daily
feedings). Also, make sure to purchase Timothy-based pellets. Many brands of
rabbit feed contain seeds, corn, and other foods that are too high in
calories to be the basis for a healthy rabbit’s diet.
Rabbits should always have an ample supply of fresh water available. Be sure
to change your rabbit’s water at least once each day. Water can be kept in a
sipper bottle or bowl. If you use a sipper bottle, watch new rabbits to make
sure they know how to use the bottles, and clean bottles daily so the tubes
don’t get clogged. If you use a bowl, make sure that the bowl is heavy
enough to avoid tipping and spilling.
Chew on This -
Chewing is part of a rabbit’s natural behavior, but it doesn’t have to be
destructive. To keep rabbits active and amused, you may want to put
untreated wood blocks or cardboard in their cages. Bowls, balls, and rings
made of willow wood are big hits with many rabbits and can be purchased
online or in specialty stores. You can also use paper-towel rolls,
toilet-paper rolls, and other chewable cardboard materials that can be
tossed in the trash once they’ve served their purpose. Avoid objects with
sharp edges, loose parts, or soft rubber that rabbits could chew into pieces
Handle With Care -
Rabbits are fragile animals who must be handled carefully. Their bones are
so delicate that the muscles in their powerful hind legs can easily overcome
the strength of their skeletons. As a result, if not properly restrained,
struggling rabbits can break their own spines.
To pick up your rabbit, place one hand underneath the front of the rabbit
and the other hand underneath his back side, lifting him carefully with both
hands and bringing him against your body. Never let a rabbit’s body hang
free, never lift by the stomach, and never pick a rabbit up by his ears.
Don’t forget that rabbits are prey animals and many will not enjoy being
picked up. Be sure to go slowly with your rabbit and practice. Let your
rabbit get accustomed to being handled.
Rabbits groom each other around the eyes, ears, top of the nose, top of the
head, and down the back, so they’ll enjoy it if you pet them on their heads.
Like any animal, each rabbit will have an individual preference about where
he likes to be touched. Rabbits lack the ability to vomit or cough up
hairballs like cats, so try to remove loose fur when you have the
opportunity to do so. Simply petting or brushing your rabbit for a few
minutes each day should remove most of the excess fur. Some rabbit breeds,
such as angoras, have extra grooming needs because of their distinctive
What’s Up, Doc? -
Just like cats and dogs, rabbits need to receive proper medical care,
including annual check-ups. While there are plenty of veterinarians who are
able to treat cats and dogs, the number of veterinarians able to treat
rabbits is much smaller. It is extremely important that any veterinarian
treating a rabbit has experience with rabbits. Many veterinarians who treat
rabbits will be called “exotics” veterinarians, meaning that they treat a
number of non-traditional pets. Make sure that you have a regular,
rabbit-savvy veterinarian as well as a listing of emergency clinics in your
area that treat rabbits.
Fix That Bunny -
Spaying or neutering your rabbit is very important. Aside from preventing
unwanted litters of kits, spaying or neutering has health and behavior
benefits. Neutering males eliminates the risk of testicular cancer and can
reduce aggression and territory-marking behaviors. Female rabbits have
extremely high rates of reproductive cancers as they get older, but spaying
them can eliminate those potential problems.
I Need a Friend -
Rabbits are social animals and most will be much happier as a part of a pair
or trio than on their own. If you don’t have a rabbit yet, consider adopting
a bonded pair instead of a single rabbit. Most animal shelters and rabbit
rescue groups have pairs available for adoption. If you already have a
rabbit, you should consider adding another one to the family. Local rabbit
groups can usually find a good match for your rabbit and help with the
introduction and bonding process.
When thinking about adding a rabbit to your family, please remember that
rabbits are not toys and they are typically not appropriate pets for
children. Rabbits are complex creatures—socially, psychologically, and
physiologically. They require a great deal of special care and supervision.
If you make the decision to add rabbits to your family, please don’t buy
from a pet store; instead, adopt from your local animal shelter or rabbit
How to Care for a Pet Rabbit
Rabbits are unique pets. They have specific needs in order to live a long,
happy and healthy life. Here is a basic overview on how to care for a pet
Step 1: Set Up Safe Indoor Housing - There are several options to house rabbits inside.
They can live free-reign in a bunny proofed room/rooms, or they can be
contained within a puppy pen, bunny condo, or large rabbit cage. If
contained, their space should always be large enough so they can hop around,
and they should be let out of their pen for at least a few hours everyday
Make sure the primary location of your rabbit is not isolated from you and
your family. A family room or living room is a good place. Learn more about
indoor rabbit housing at Housing Your Pet Rabbit Indoors.
Step 2: Bunny Proof Your House - Rabbits need space to run around and explore. In order to create a
safe space for your bunny and to protect your belongings, you will need to
thoroughly bunny proof the area. This includes covering all wires with
plastic sleeves or flex tubing, or lifting them 3-4 feet out of reach of
If you don’t want your baseboards gnawed, you can cover them with plastic
guards, 2x4s or furring strips. You’ll also have to block off certain areas
since rabbits like to chew the undersides of beds, items on bookshelves,
house plants, and more. Basically, your rabbit will try to chew everything
in reach. Learn more at Bunny Proofing Your House.
Step 3: Provide Fresh Hay - A rabbit’s diet should mainly consist of hay. Fresh hay
should be provided to rabbits at all times. Baby rabbits should be given
alfalfa, and adult rabbits should be fed timothy hay, grass hay, or oat hay.
Using a large hay feeder is helpful because it keeps large amounts of hay
dry, clean, and accessible. Learn more about the importance of hay and where
to buy it at Hay for Rabbits: The Basis for a Healthy Diet.
Step 4: Provide Fresh Greens, Fiber-rich Pellets, and Fresh Water - Supplement your rabbit’s hay with fresh vegetables,
fiber-rich pellets (in limited quantities for adult rabbits), and fresh
water daily. You can learn more about what kinds of food to feed your bunny
at What to Feed Your Pet Rabbit.
You can also learn about growing many of your rabbit’s favorite vegetables
at Bunny Gardening for Beginners.
Step 5: Set Up a Litter Box - Rabbits have a natural inclination to poop and pee in
one area. Take advantage of this by setting up a medium-sized cat litter box
or shallow storage bin near their food/water bowls and hay feeder.
Put a thin layer of rabbit-safe, recycled newspaper pellet litter at the
bottom of the litter box. Do not use clay/clumping cat litter or wood
shavings, as they are not safe for rabbits. Then put hay on top of the
litter. Rabbits like to eat hay and poop at the same time, so this will
encourage good litter box habits. Learn more at Litter Training Your Pet
Step 6: Provide Enrichment - Rabbits can get bored easily. Not only do they
need space to exercise, they also need mental stimulation. Cardboard castles
are great because rabbits spend hours chewing new windows and doorways.
Cardboard castles also provide a quiet refuge for the rabbit when necessary.
Learn more at Building a Cardboard Castle for Your Bunny.
You can also provide a variety of toys for your rabbit to pique his or her
interest. Learn more at Enrichment for Your Pet Bunny, Logic Toys for
Rabbits, and Playing with Your Pet Bunny.
Step 7: Groom Your Rabbit - Rabbits are naturally clean animals and wash themselves
frequently. But you still need to groom your rabbit on a regular basis.
Rabbits go through shedding cycles a couple times a year. It’s important to
brush your rabbit to remove all the excess fur. Otherwise, your rabbit could
ingest it and have serious digestive issues. Learn more about keeping your
rabbit looking and feeling sharp in our article, Grooming Your House Rabbit.
Regular nail clipping is also important because long nails can get snagged
on things or they can curl into your rabbit’s paw. Learn how to clip your
rabbit’s nails yourself at Clipping Your Rabbit’s Nails.
Step 8: Bring Your Rabbit to a Rabbit-Savvy Vet - Rabbits are prey animals, and so their natural
instinct is to hide any symptoms of illness. You must keep a watchful eye to
ensure your rabbit is eating, drinking, pooping, and peeing regularly. If
you notice any change in behavior, it is important to call a rabbit-savvy
vet immediately. Learn about common rabbit diseases to look out for at our
Rabbit Health section.
In addition to responding to illness, it is also essential to bring your
rabbit in for regular veterinary checkups. The vet can check the ears, eyes,
teeth, and gut to make sure the rabbit is in good health. Finally, consider
spaying or neutering your rabbit. Spaying/neutering can reduce aggressive
behavior, improve litter box habits, and improve a rabbit’s overall health.
Learn more at Spaying or Neutering Your Pet Bunny.
Find a rabbit-savvy vet in your area at the House Rabbit Society
Step 9: Understand Rabbits’ Unique Language and Behavior - Pet rabbits are different from cats and dogs. It’s essential
to understand how rabbits think so you and your rabbit can live a happy life
together. Learn about their unique language at Binkies, Nose Bonks and
Flops: Rabbit Behavior Explained and demystify unfavorable rabbit behavior
by reading Help! My Rabbit Hates Me!. By catering to your rabbit’s natural
inclinations, you can build a trusting, loving relationship with your bunny.
See Building a Relationship with Your Rabbit for more information.